Diabetes Mellitus, generally referred to as diabetes, is an ancient greek term literally meaning "sweet urine". The term describes a patients urine, whose blood contains an unusually high sugar level due to a malfunctioning of the hormone insulin. The result is urine, which has a high sugar content.
Diabetes is a common sickness. Every year the number of Diabetes type 2 patients increases by 3%.
Diabetes Millitus is categorised into two types:
- Type 1
Diabetes type 1 usually affects teenager and is characterised by the bodies’ insulin deficiency. Insufficient insulin means that 80% of insulin producing cells in the pancreas have been destroyed. The reason could for example be a disturbed immune system. Without insulin, the body is not able to withdraw the needed sugar from the blood. The sugar is hence passed out with a great amount of water.
- Type 2
Diabetes type 2 is 10 times more frequent than type 1 and afflicts mostly overweight persons who furthermore have a passive lifestyle. These patients produce sufficient insulin, which however is ineffective. Type 2 does not show any particular symptoms (overweight, fatigue, depression) and is usually detected by chance.
Insulin deficiency does not necessarily mean having diabetes. Various reasons could equally cause insulin deficiency, such as pregnancy (gestational diabetes), hormone disorders, infections and genetic disease.
Diabetes should not be underestimated and the lack of insulin triggers a row of symptoms.
Diabetes Type 1: Type 1 patients lack minerals and are dehydrated. The body always feels hungry and thirsty, even though their blood sugar level is stable. The body reacts by producing ketone bodies (compounds produced during decomposition of fatty acids) causing an acidity of the blood and other metabolic dysfunctions(Ketoacidosis). A steadily decreasing mineral supply puts the patient at risk of falling into a coma. Type 1 patients are also at risk of Hypoglycemia (low blood sugar level), caused by a wrong dosage of insulin or eating the wrong foods.
Diabetes Type 2: Type 2 patients easily suffer from high blood pressure, due to an increasing blood water content in the blood resulting from the high blood sugar level. After a while this condition leads to the constriction of the arteries. The blood circulation suffers. Especially the blood circulation of sensitive tissue, such as the retina, nerves and kidneys is affected. Hemorrhages may also appear in these areas, leaving behind scars.
But also the constriction of the arteries in the lower leg and feet is possible, causing the so called diabetic foot. A diabetic foot means the development of bad healing ulcers leading to the death of the particular limp.A high blood pressure also means a higher strain on the heart and an insufficient oxygen supply. This may lead to chest pain or even a heart attack.
A high blood sugar level can slowly damage the kidney. This so called Diabetic nephropathy might take 20 to 30 years, but it could even lead to a kidney failure (chronic kidney failure) forcing the patient to depend on an artificial replacement (dialysis).
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